Gabn : Fiqh term in Islam about buying and selling

Gabn is an term of Islamic law which means deceiving and cheating during the fiscal process of buying and selling. Profiting from commerce is naturally lawful in Islam, however trying to conceal faults of a product or trying to over-praise its attributes to make it seem more valuable than its real value is definitely forbidden in Islam.

Holy Quran states;

O ye who believe! Eat not up your property among yourselves in vanities: But let there be amongst you Traffic and trade by mutual good-will: Nor kill (or destroy) yourselves: for verily Allah hath been to you Most Merciful! (An-Nisa 4/29)

Prophet Muhammad(saw) said;

It is narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) happened to pass by a heap of eatables (corn). He thrust his hand in that (heap) and his fingers were moistened. He said to the owner of that heap of eatables (corn): What is this? He replied: Messenger of Allah, these have been drenched by rainfall. He (the Holy Prophet) remarked: Why did you not place this (the drenched part of the heap) over other eatables so that the people could see it? He who deceives is not of me (is not my follower).  (Sahih Muslim, Kitab Al-Iman)

There are two types of Gabn, one is gabn-i faheesh, the other is gabn-i yaseer. Faheesh is deceiving in grand level, yaseer means deceiving little. Deciphering which is little or more deceiving is simple.

If a certain product is 100 dollar and market experts price it as 90 or 95 dollar, than this is considered as yaseer “deceit” If a certain product is 100 dollar and all market expert price it between a range of 50-70, then this is gabn-i faheesh.

It is also prohibited according to Islamic law to cheat the customer while telling the attributes of a certain product to that customer. Here the fiqh term “taghreer” is used which means cheating.

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