Concept of Fiqh : Set of rules and laws on religious exercises, rights and wrongs on Islam

The word fiqh means is to understand, comprehend something to its full content. Another definition of fiqh is “what kind of in-depth knowledge should a Muslim have about set of rules and laws on religious exercises, rights and wrongs on Islam. Also it means detailed knowledge available to a person to interpret reasoning behind wording and actions in Islamic law and traditions.

In Holy Quran;

“Wherever ye are, death will find you out, even if ye are in towers built up strong and high!” If some good befalls them, they say, “This is from Allah”; but if evil, they say, “This is from thee” (O Prophet). Say: “All things are from Allah.” But what hath come to these people, that they fail to understand a single fact?” (An-Nisa 4/78)

Here “yafqahoona” means to understand something to full content. According to a hadith in Bukhari’s “kitab-al ilm”, Prophet Muhammed(saw) said:

‘If Allah wills to bestow someone with special virtue; He makes him a Faqih of the Religion’.

Here faqih means the person who is master in the discipline of fiqh.

During the era of the four khalifah and the period of the tabiun, figh was given the general and whole of the study of “ilm”, which is the total sum of all of Islamic sciences. Fiqh-i Akbar meant aqeedah and tawheed which are the subjects of topics of faith in general. Fiqh-i Veejdaan constituted matters of personal cleansing of the soul and other matters of ethical problems. When the word fiqh was used alone, it meant to underline subjects of deeds and practices.

Today the word fiqh mostly used to describe set of rules according to Islamic law, however the origin of the word implies that the boundaries of the word fiqh is wider than that, it should comprise topics like personal hygiene, cleaning before prayers, details of praying etc…

Subject of fiqh compasses actions of a Muslim who is responsible of certain set of ordinances and prohibitions based on Islamic laws and traditions.

Fiqh asserts Islam’s practical and worldly side of the religion, unlike the term of “aqeedah” which is about the essentials of the belief system in Islam, mainly matters of faith in Allah(j.j) ,angels and judgement day.







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